In almost two weeks of searching and reading, I'm practically exhausted and have only scratched the surface. Partly from spending so much time reading, but also from spending so much time jumping right into the code and dashing off something new and exciting.
The ideal place to start would be with W3C, and then onto the web standards sites like WSG and Westciv.
I found Mark Pilgrim's book to be an invaluable read. He would rather I had purchased it, but I instead took advantage of his online version: Dive Into HTML5.
Estelle Weyl's site, Standardista, is chalk full of all the nitty gritty details. She is the co-author of HTML5 & CSS3 For The Real World.
Into this mix there is a whole range of tools for creating HTML5 and CSS3 effects and code. Look for them in my next post.